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Old Catholic Church
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Old Catholic Church is a community of Christian churches. Many of these
were German-speaking churches of laymen and clergymen who split from the
Roman Catholic Church in the 1870s because of the promulgation of the dogma
of papal Infallibility by the First Vatican Council of 1869–1870. The term "Old
Catholic" was first used in 1853 to describe the members of the See of Utrecht,
who were not under Papal authority. The Continental European Old Catholic
Churches are usually a part of the Union of Utrecht. There are now English
speaking Old Catholic Churches in the United Kingdom and North America not
"in-communion" with the Union of Utrecht. The Old Catholic Church of Slovakia
is an example of a Continental European Old Catholic Church that removed itself
from the Union of Utrecht.


•        1 History
o        1.1 Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands
o        1.2 Impact of the First Vatican Council
o        1.3 Old Catholics in the United States and Canada
o        1.4 The Conference of North American Old Catholic Bishops
o        1.5 The Old Catholic Church in the United States
o        1.6 The Old Catholic Church in the United Kingdom
•        2 Terminology
•        3 References
•        4 See also
o        4.1 Notable Old Catholics
•        5 External links
o        5.1 Old Catholic Churches
        5.1.1 Member churches of Utrecht Union
        5.1.2 Other Churches with Old Catholic roots
        5.1.3 Liberal Catholic Churches with Old catholic roots and theosophical
        5.1.4 Religious Orders
o        5.2  Other links

Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands

Main articles: Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands and Ultrajectine

Old Catholic Archbishop of Utrecht Gerardus Gul (1892-1920).
St. Willibrord was consecrated to the episcopacy by Pope Sergius I in 696 at
Rome. Upon his return to the Netherlands, he established his see at Utrecht. In
addition, he established the dioceses at Deventer and Haarlem. The Church of
Utrecht also provided a worthy occupant for the See of Rome in 1552 in the
person of Pope Hadrian VI, while two of the most able exponents of the spiritual
life, Geert Groote, who founded the Brethren of the Common Life, and Thomas
a Kempis, who is credited with writing the Imitation of Christ, were both from
the Dutch Church.

In 1145, granting the petition made by the Holy Roman Emperor, Conrad II and
Bishop Heribert of Utrecht, Pope Eugene III gave the See of Utrecht the right to
elect its own bishops. This privilege was affirmed by the Fourth Lateran Council
in 1215. In 1520, the autonomy of Utrecht was strengthened when Pope Leo X
conceded to the 57th Bishop of Utrecht (Philip of Burgundy), that neither he
nor any of his successors, nor any clergy or laity from Utrecht, should ever be
tried by a Roman tribunal. This papal concession was of the greatest importance
in the later defence of the rights of the See of Utrecht. During the Reformation
the Roman Catholic Church was persecuted and the Dutch dioceses north of
the Rhine and Waal were suspended by the Holy See. Protestants had occupied
most church buildings, and those remaining were confiscated by the
government of the Dutch Republic of Seven Provinces which favoured Calvinism.
However about one third of the population in the northern Netherlands
remained Catholic, and the popes appointed apostolic vicars (based in Utrecht)
to care for these people. Clergy secretly celebrated the sacraments in a variety
of places: homes, farm houses and even sheds. German and Belgian
missionaries helped the persecuted Catholics. The person named as apostolic
vicar was also called Archbishop of Utrecht in partibus infidelium (i.e. Archbishop
in the land of unbelievers).

In 1691, the Jesuits accused Petrus Codde, the then apostolic vicar of favouring
the Jansenist heresy. Pope Innocent XII appointed a commission of cardinals to
investigate the accusations, apparently violating the exemption from trial
granted in 1520. The commission concluded that the accusations were

In 1700 a new pope, Clement XI, summoned Codde to Rome in order to
participate in the Jubilee Year, whereupon a second commission was appointed
to try Codde. The result of this second proceeding was again a complete
acquittal. However, in 1701 Clement XI decided to suspend Codde in and
appoint a successor. The Dutch Catholics refused to accept the replacement,
and Codde continued in his office until he resigned in 1703.
After Codde's resignation, Cornelius van Steenoven, was elected as his
successor. Van Steenoven was consecrated by a missionary bishop Dominique
Marie Varlet, who was visiting the Netherlands. Although the See of Utrecht
informed the pope of Van Steenhoven's election and ordination, the latter was
done without papal permission. Van Steenoven appointed and ordained bishops
to the sees of Deventer, Haarlem and Groningen. Although the pope was duly
notified, Rome still regarded these sees as being vacant, and the pope
continued to appointed apostolic vicars for the Netherlands. Van Steenoven and
the other bishops were excommunicated, and thus began the Old Catholic
Church in the Netherlands.  Most Dutch Catholics remained in full communion
with Rome and with the apostolic vicars appointed by the pope. However, due
to prevailing anti-papal feeling among the powerful Dutch Calvinists, the Church
of Utrecht was tolerated and even congratulated by the government of the
Dutch Republic.

In 1853 Pope Pius IX, received guarantees of religious freedom from the Dutch
King Willem II, and established a Roman Catholic hierarchy in the Netherlands;
this existed alongside that of the Old Catholic See of Utrecht. Thereafter in the
Netherlands the Utrecht hierarchy was referred to as the 'Old Catholic Church'
to distinguish it from that of Roman Catholicism. According to Roman Catholic
theology, the Old Catholic Church of Utrecht has maintained apostolic
succession, and its clergy thus celebrate valid sacraments.
[edit] Impact of the First Vatican Council

Old Catholic Parish Church in Gablonz an der Neiße, Austria-Hungary (now
Jablonec nad Nisou, Czech Republic). A considerable number of ethnic German
Catholics supported Döllinger in his rejection of the dogma of papal infallibility.
After the First Vatican Council in 1870, considerable groups of Austrian, German
and Swiss Catholics rejected the teaching on papal infallibility, and left to form
their own churches. These were supported by the `Old Catholic´ Archbishop of
Utrecht, who ordained priests and bishops for them; later the Dutch were
united more formally with many of these groups under the name "Utrecht Union
of Churches".  In the spring of 1871 a convention in Munich attracted several
hundred participants, including Church of England and Protestant observers.
The most notable leader of the movement, though maintaining a certain
distance from the Old Catholic Church as an institution, was the church
historian and priest Johann Joseph Ignaz von Döllinger (1799–1890), who had
already been excommunicated by the Roman Catholic Church over the affair.
Despite never formally becoming a member of the Old Catholic Church, Döllinger
requested and took last rites from an Old Catholic priest.

The convention decided to form the "Old Catholic Church" in order to distinguish
its members from what they saw as a novelty (the doctrine of papal infallibility)
in the Roman Catholic Church. At their second convention, they elected their
first bishop, who was ordained by the non-Roman Archbishop of Utrecht. In
1874 they abandoned the requirement of clerical celibacy. Although it continued
to use the Roman Rite, from the middle of the 18th century the Dutch Old
Catholic See of Utrecht had increasingly used the vernacular in place of Latin.
The vernacular was slowly introduced into the Liturgy by the 1870 Old Catholic
churches, until it completely replaced Latin in 1877. The Old Catholic Church in
Germany received some support from the new German Empire of Otto von
Bismarck, whose policy was increasingly hostile towards the Roman Catholic
Church in the 1870s and 1880s. In Austrian territories, Pan-Germanic
nationalist groups, like those of Georg Ritter von Schönerer, promoted the
conversion of Roman Catholics to Old Catholicism (or Lutheranism). Liberal
politicians and philosophers also sympathised with the Old Catholic movement.
The Old Catholic Church shares much doctrine and liturgy with the Roman
Catholic Church, though liturgically it has tended to maintain the Tridentine Rite
whereas Roman Catholicism has embraced the Novus Ordo. However, Old
Catholicism tends to have a more liberal stance on most issues such as the
ordination of women, homosexual activity, artificial contraception and (less
frequently) liturgical reforms/innovations such as open communion.

Since the 1990s the Utrecht Union of Old Catholic Churches has ordained
women as priests. Dr. Angela Berlis was one of the first women to be ordained
to the Old Catholic presbyterate.
From the Old Catholic Church website:[1]
The "Catholic Diocese of the Old Catholics in Germany" (Katholisches Bistum der
Alt-Katholiken in Deutschland) is
•        autonomous,
•        episcopally, synodally structured,
•        catholic
•        a church, which acknowledges the diversity and the essential teaching
and institutions of the early, undivided church during the first millennium. Its
origins lie in various Catholic reform movements.
Based on critical examination of the historical witnesses of early Christianity, the
leaders of the Old Catholic movement developed an episcopal, synodal church
structure, which incorporates the historic episcopal and priestly offices into
democratic structures at all levels.

Old Catholics in the United States and Canada
Soon after Old Catholicism's momentous events at the end of the 19th century,
Old Catholic missionaries came to the United States.

Bishop Arnold Harris Mathew being ordained a bishop by Old Catholic
Archbishop of Utrecht Gerardus Gul at St. Getrude's Cathedral, in the city of
Utrecht, on 28 April 1908.  Today, the largest of the Old Catholic communities
in the United States is the Polish National Catholic Church. The PNCC began in
the late 19th century over issues concerning the ownership of church property
and the domination of the U.S. hierarchy by Irish prelates. The PNCC traces its
apostolic succession directly to the Union of Utrecht and thus PNCC orders and
sacraments are recognized by Roman Catholicism. Since late 2003, the PNCC
has no longer been part of the Union of Utrecht. Among the reasons for
disaffiliation are Utrecht's acceptance of the ordination of women together with
a more liberal attitude towards the practice of homosexual activity, both of
which the PNCC rejects.

There are many U.S. groups which claim Old Catholic lineage, but few have any
real membership. Unlike the Polish National Catholic Church, these are neither
affiliated with, nor recognized, by the Old Catholic Union of Utrecht.
Many Independent Old Catholic bishops in the United States claim to trace their
apostolic succession to Arnold Harris Mathew. Mathew was consecrated bishop
on 28 April 1908, by Utrecht Archbishop Gerhardus Gul, assisted by the Old
Catholic bishops of Deventer and Berne, in St. Gertrude's Old Catholic
Cathedral, Utrecht. Only two years later, Mathew declared his autonomy from
the Union of Utrecht, with which he had experienced tension from the
beginning. Bishop Mathew sent missionaries to the United States including the
theosophist Bishop J. I. Wedgwood (1892 - 1950) and Prince (Bishop) Rudolph
de Landas Berghes et de Rache (1873-1920).  Bishop de Landas arrived in the
United States on 7 November 1914, hoping to unite the various independent
Old Catholic jurisdictions under Archbishop Mathew. De Landas contributed
greatly to the growth and of the independent Old Catholic movement, ordaining
and consecrating others including William Francis Brothers and Carmel Henry

In the area of Green Bay, Wisconsin, Joseph Rene Vilatte began working with
Roman Catholics of Belgian ancestry, who tended to be isolated from Roman
Catholic influence due to their geographical position. Vilatte was ordained a
deacon on 6 June 1885 and priest on 7 June 1885 by the Most Rev. Eduard
Herzog, bishop of the Old Catholic Church of Switzerland. After ordination, Fr.
Vilatte worked diligently on behalf of his congregations in Wisconsin, providing
the only sacramental presence in his very rural part of the state.
In time, he asked the Old Catholic Archbishop of Utrecht to be ordained a
bishop so that he might confirm children, but his petition was not granted.
Determined to meet the spiritual needs of his people, Vilatte sought
opportunities in the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox Churches. He was
ordained a bishop in India on the 28 May 1892 under the jurisdiction of the
Syriac Patriarch of Antioch.

The Independent Old Catholic Church in the United States is very much
organized on a local model. Disagreements and divisions have been many, with
bishops issuing excommunications and condemnations; later, it is not
uncommon for them to be lifted as friendships and alliances are restored. Until
recently, it was not uncommon for independent Catholic clergy to undergo
multiple ordinations to ensure apostolic succession had been achieved; such a
practice is considered spurious by the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches.
[edit] The Conference of North American Old Catholic Bishops
With the PNCC no longer a member of the Union of Utrecht, the Union's
International Bishops Conference asked the Episcopal Church, its ecumenical
partner, to initiate discussions among various Old Catholics concerning how
they identify as Old Catholics, their ecclesiology, and whether they ordain
women. The Episcopal Church, after having gathered this information, reported
to the International Bishops Conference of the Union of Utrecht. The report was
given at the annual meeting of the IBC in August 2005. The IBC asked the
Episcopal Church to host a consultation of these bishops in North America.
In May 2006, four North American Old Catholic bishops gathered at the
Bethsaida Spirituality Center in Queens Village, New York: the Most Rev. Peter
Hickman, the Most Rv. Peter Paul Brennan, the Most Rev. Charles Leigh, and the
Most Rev. Robert T. Fuentes. Also in attendance was the liaison of the Episcopal
Church to the IBC, the Rt. Rev. Michie Klusmeyer, Bishop of West Virginia, Dr.
Tom Ferguson, and Fr. Bjorn Marcussen (an Episcopal priest who had been
ordained in the Old Catholic Church of Austria). The IBC sent Fr. Gunther Esser,
Director of Old Catholic Studies at the University of Bonn, as its representative.
Key to the discussions was the ecclesiology of the Old Catholic Church,
highlighted in the Preamble to the Statutes of the International Bishops
Conference. After three days of discussions, the North American bishops
agreed to the formation of the Conference of North American Old Catholic
Bishops, patterned after the IBC. The CNAOCB has as its central goal the
tangible, organic unity among American Old Catholic jurisdictions. The bishops
agreed to meet at least twice a year, and welcome applications from
independent jurisdictions which are stable, sizable, and willing to commit to the
beliefs held by the Union of Utrecht.

In November 2006, only two bishops remained, and they met in Los Angeles, to
develop the Conference's Unity Statement, fashion its rules of order, and set
forth the criteria for joining the Conference. The Unity Statement, which
incorporated the ecclesial understanding of the Union of Utrecht and which all
new members must subscribe to, states:

Assembled at St. Paul’s Cathedral Center in Los Angeles, California, on the
seventh day of November, 2006, we commit ourselves to these goals:
1. To place Jesus Christ as the head and center of this Conference of Bishops.
2. To conform to the gospel of Jesus and his call to serve God and to serve our
3. To call upon the Paraclete, the Holy Spirit, to bless, sanctify and guide this
4. To form this Conference of Bishops as an office, a voice and a center of Old
Catholicism in the USA.
5. To model our Conference on the International Conference of Bishops (IBC) of
the Union of Utrecht, as outlined in the Preamble of the Statutes of the
International Bishops Conference of the Union of Utrecht.
6. To work collegially and cooperatively to form one National Old Catholic Church
or a Communion or a Federation of American Old Catholic Churches.
7. To study and discuss Old Catholic documents and history, in order to
determine how these documents are to promote the work toward unity.
8. To indicate those elements which identify our churches as Old Catholic.
9. To pray and work for unity among the bishops and the churches we
10. To convene at least two face-to-face meetings each year for consultations
on subjects of common interest.

We commit ourselves to these understandings:
1. In order to begin, nurture and perfect a more complete and satisfactory
union, we have formed the CNAOCB, basing our cooperation upon the tenets of
the Bonn Accord of 1931 between the Old Catholic and Anglican Churches,
which states:
A. Each Communion recognises the Catholicity and independence of the other,
and maintains its own.
B. Each Communion agrees to admit members of the other Communion to
participate in the Sacraments.
C. Full Communion does not require from either communion the acceptance of
all doctrinal opinion, sacramental devotion or liturgical practice characteristic of
the other, but implies that each believes the other to hold all the essentials of
the Christian faith.
2. We acknowledge and accept the Union of Utrecht’s Four Ecclesiological
Points, namely,
A. Ecclesiology of the Local Church: The fullness of the One, Holy, Catholic and
Apostolic Church resides in the local church, understood as the local diocese.
B. The Role of the Bishop and Apostolic Succession: Apostolic succession
belongs to the church. Bishops are servants of the church, elected by the
church, for ordained office in the church. Apostolic succession refers to the
passing on of the faith of the apostles in and through the church under the
leadership and oversight of the bishop of the local church, ordained for his or
her office of bishop through the laying on of hands and prayer. Apostolic
succession is not the personal possession of a bishop that can be passed on to
others in separation from the office of bishop in the local church. There cannot
be a church without a bishop; conversely there cannot be a bishop without
church. Here the expression “local church” refers to a community of faith that
can best be described as a diocese, which in turn consists of a communion of
parishes and missions. Bishops without churches are outside of the apostolic
succession, even though they may have been ordained with the proper ritual
and the proper intention.
C. The Theology of Communion: Even though the fullness of the one, holy,
catholic and apostolic church resides in the local church, the local church cannot
remain alone. The church’s catholicity must express itself, which it does through
communion with other local churches. The bishop of a local church stands at the
intersection of where the local church meets with the other churches in
communion. The bishop represents the local church to the other churches in
communion, and represents the churches in communion to the local church. The
bishop brings concerns of importance for the local church that may have
consequences for the entire communion to the attention of the other bishops
of the communion, and brings the concerns of the bishops of the communion
to the attention of the local church.
D. Synodality: Synodality permeates all levels of the church. Members of the
local congregation meet and make joint decisions about how to implement the
mission, pastoral care and finances of the parish. It elects the pastor from
qualified candidates. It elects a parish committee of lay people to govern the
temporal affairs of the parish and minister side by side with the pastor. It elects
representatives to the Diocesan Synod. Old Catholic dioceses are governed
synodically by a synod of elected lay people and clergy. The Diocesan Synod
elects the bishop. An elected Synodical Council assists the bishop in the
governance of the diocese between diocesan synods.
3. We accept the Declaration of Utrecht (1889), The Munich Declaration (1871),
and The Fourteen Thesis of the Old Catholic Union Conference at Bonn (1874).
4. The clergy candidates are to be educated as professionals at the university
level or at the discretion of the local bishop, candidates with sufficient pastoral
experience may also be ordained Whenever possible, candidates will normally
attain a Master’s Degree or its equivalent in theology or ministry.
5. The church is open to all the baptized. Any baptized member who is qualified
may be elected to and called to holy orders with the laying on of hands for
ministry in the church.
Given at Los Angeles, California, 7th of November, 2006.
The first signers of the Unity Statement were Bishop Charles Leigh of the
Apostolic Catholic Church of Florida and Bishop Robert T. Fuentes of the Old
Catholic Diocese of Napa. Bishop Michael Scalzi of American Catholic Church of
New England signed the statement in July 2007 and Bishop Peter Hickman of
the Ecumenical Catholic Communion signed in September 2007.

Although there have been various attempts at unity among independent Old
Catholic jursidictions since the turn of the 20th century, none has had the
participation or the support of either the Episcopal Church or the Union of
Utrecht. Both the Episcopal Church and the Union of Utrecht agree to remain
engaged with the Conference. However, the success of the CNAOCB, and the
degree of unity among the North American churches, rests with their bishops,
both present members and those that will join, as well as the churches they

The Old Catholic Church in the United States

Old Catholics in the United States interpret and understand Catholicism and the
Gospel in different ways. Some are more conservative, not acknowledging
female ordination, excluding persons of lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender
identity from full participation in the life and ministry of the Church, and some
even hold to some version of the Tridentine liturgy.

Others have established communities that are fully inclusive, embracing people
from all social, economic, sexual, gender, national, ideological and ethnic
backgrounds, and have participated in the Liturgical Renewal movement started
in the 1940s.  Many Old Catholics in the United States tend toward a revisited
version of Roman Catholicism, one that either matches their memory, or how
they would have liked the Roman Catholic Church to be.

Some follow closely the foundational documents of the European Old Catholics,
namely the Munich Declaration, the 14 Theses and the Declaration of Utrecht,
while others find these foundational statements dated, or not in conformity with
their views of catholicity.

The Old Catholic Church in the United Kingdom
The English Catholic Church, formally itself an implant of orthodox Old
Catholicism from the USA (originally a missionary province of the Old Catholic
Church of the USA or 'OCCUS') decided, in consultation with other orthodox
Bishops, to re-name itself the "Old Catholic Church in Europe" or 'OCCE[1]' to
become not just an English language representative for orthodox Old
Catholicism in Europe but also to provide an organisation for orthodox Old
Catholics to relate to and be cared for on the Western side of the European
Continent (the Old Catholic Church of Slovakia similarly for the East). It must be
stressed that these provisions for orthodox Old Catholics have yet to be
formally agreed between the Churches concerned. The OCCE is a numerically
small denomination and yet it remains loyal to traditional Old Catholicism and
engages in partnership working with other orthodox jurisdictions within COUSPP


The term 'Old Catholic' is used often by many splinter groups, ranging from
'Continuing' or 'Traditionalist' to 'New Age'. Many of these self-identified Old
Catholic Churches are gatherings of clergy without substantial congregations of
faithful, and some allegedly exist only on the Internet. Although the Bishops of
many of these groups can trace lines of Apostolic Succession through Old
Catholic Churches, most of these are regarded as episcopi vagantes even by
the established, mainstream churches of the Utrecht Union.

1.        ^ Catholic Diocese of the Old Catholics in Germany Old Catholic Church

•        Episcopi Vagantes and the Anglican Church. Henry R.T. Brandreth.
       London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1947.
•        Episcopi vagantes in church history. A.J. Macdonald. London: Society for
       Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1945.
•        History of the So-Called Jansenist Church of Holland. John M. Neale. New
       York: AMS Press, 1958.
•        Old Catholic: History, Ministry, Faith & Mission. Andre J. Queen. iUniverse
       title, 2003.
•        The Old Catholic Church: A History and Chronology (The Autocephalous
       Orthodox Churches, No. 3). Karl Pruter. Highlandville, Missouri: St.
       Willibrord's Press, 1996.
•        The Old Catholic Sourcebook (Garland Reference Library of Social
       Science). Karl Pruter and J. Gordon Melton. New York: Garland
       Publishers, 1983.
•        The Old Catholic Churches and Anglican Orders. C.B. Moss. The Christian
       East, January, 1926.
•        The Old Catholic Movement. C.B. Moss. London: Society for Promoting
       Christian Knowledge, 1964.
•        The Old Catholics, Anthony Cekada, The Roman Catholic Magazine, 1980.
See also
•        American Catholic Church in the United States
•        Catholic Charismatic Church of Canada
•        Episcopi vagantes
•        The Evangelical Old Catholic Comunion
•        Free Church of Antioch
•        Independent Catholic Churches
•        The Liberal Catholic Church
•        Old Catholic Church of America
•        Old Catholic Church in Europe
•        Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands
Notable Old Catholics
•        Randall Garrett[3]
•        Franz Heinrich Reusch
•        Warren Prall Watters
•        Arnold Harris Mathew

Old Catholic Churches
Member churches of Utrecht Union
•        Union of Utrecht of The Old Catholic Churches
•        Old-Catholic Church of the Netherlands
•        Catholic Diocese of the Old Catholics in Germany
•        Old-Catholic Church of Switzerland
•        Old-Catholic Church of Austria
•        Old-Catholic Church of the Czech Republic
•        Polish-Catholic Church of Poland
Other Churches with Old Catholic roots
•        American Apostolic Catholic Church
o        Holy Family Old Catholic Church The American Apostolic Catholic Church
       in Atlanta Georgia
•        American Catholic Church in New England
•        American Catholic Church in the United States
•        American Ecumenical Catholic Church
•        American Old Catholic Church of Aurora, Colorado
•        Ancient Apostolic Communion
•        Apostolic Catholic Church Charter Member - Conference of North
American Old Catholic Bishops
•        Apostolic Catholic Church In America
•        British Old Catholic Church
•        Catholic Church, Inc. Catholic Church, Inc.
o        All Saints Catholic Church All Saints Catholic Church, Tallahassee, Florida
o        Holy Angels Catholic Community Holy Angels Catholic Community, Winter
       Park, Florida
•        Catholic Apostolic Church in North America (CACINA)
•        Catholic Church of America
•        Christ Catholic Church
•        Christ Our Teacher Old Catholic Ministry
•        Community Catholic Church of Canada
o        Holy Angels Ministries
o        St. Anne’s Parish
•        Community of Charity Reform Catholic Church aka Independent Old
       Catholic Church
•        Community of The Good Samaritan American Independent Catholic
       Church Mission
•        Ecclesia Apostolica Jesu Christi
•        Ecumenical Catholic Church
•        Ecumenical Catholic Church USA
•        Ecumenical Catholic Communion
o        San Damiano Ecumenical Catholic Church Ecumenical Catholic Parish in
       Little Rock, AR, affiliated with the Ecumenical Catholic Communion
•        Ecumenical Free Catholic Communion The EFCC is an ecumenical, free,
      catholic communion of individual Christians and various ministries who
      support catholic unity. It is open to traditional, conservative, moderate,
      progressive, and liberal thought, doctrine, and liturgical expression.
o       Diocese of the Shepherd's Heart - EFCC EFCC Diocese in Hollister
      Missouri, affiliated with the Ecumenical  
      Free Catholic Communion
o        Diocese of Saint Brendan - EFCC EFCC Diocese in Cambridge Ohio,
       affiliated with the Ecumenical Free
       Catholic Communion
•        Evangelical Old Catholic Communion (EVOCC)
•        Gemeenschap van de Goede Herder (in Dutch)
•        Heartland Old Catholic Church
•        Independent Catholic Christian Church
•        Independent Old Catholic Church
•        Independent Catholic Church of the West
•        Independent Catholic Orthodox Alliance
•        North American Old Catholic Church An inclusive Catholic faith community
       (Chicago, IL.; Washington, DC.; Milwaukee, WI.; Louisville, KY.; Athens,
o        Divine Mercy Old Catholic Church
o        Holy Trinity Catholic Church
o        Our Lady of Mt. Carmel Old Catholic Church
o        Saint Christopher Old Catholic Church
•        North American Old Roman Catholic Church
•        Old Catholic Church of America
•        Old Catholic Brazil - ++Lucas Macieira da Silva
•        Old Catholic Church of British Columbia
•        The Old Catholic Church in Europe
•        Old Catholic Communion in North America An Old Catholic Communion
       open to all autocephalous Old Catholic, Orthodox Catholic, or Orthodox
       Anglican jurisdictions with orthdox beliefs and theology.
o        All Saints Old Catholic Church Old Catholic Parish in Tennessee affiliated
       with the Old Catholic Communion in
       North America
o        Dove of Peace Old Catholic Church Old Catholic Parish affiliated with the
       Old Catholic Communion in North
o        Old Catholic Diocese of The Holy Spirit Old Catholic Diocese with
       orthodox theology affiliated with the Old Catholic Communion in North
o        Saint Francis Old Catholic Mission Old Catholic Parish affiliated with the
       Old Catholic Communion in North America
o        Holy Trinity Old Catholic Church Old Catholic Parish affiliated with the Old
       Catholic Communion in North America
•        Old Catholic Church of the Beatitudes Lansdowne PA Apostolic Catholic
•        Old Catholic Mariavite Church
•        Old Catholic Church of North America
o        Canticle of Christ Ministry An outreach ministry of the Old Catholic
       Church of North America
o        Incarnation Old Catholic Mission A mission of the Old Catholic Church of
       North America
o        St Thomas More Old Catholic Church An Old Catholic parish in Central
       Florida, part of the Old Catholic Church of North America
•        Old Catholic Church in Slovakia
•        Old Episcopal Catholic Church of The Netherlands
•        Old Roman Catholic Church in North America
•        Old Roman Catholic Church of Great Britain
•        Our Lady of Mt. Carmel Old Catholic Church in Washington, DC
•        Polish National Catholic Church
o        Polish National Catholic Church in Republic of Poland
•        Reformed Catholic Church
•        Servants of the Good Shepherd
•        St. Mychal Judge Old Catholic Church Dallas, Texas, USA
•        United Catholic Church
•        United Ecumenical Catholic Church North America
•        United Ecumenical Catholic Church Europe and the United Kingdom
•        United Ecumenical Catholic Church Metropolitan Region of Australasia
•        United Reform Catholic Church International

Liberal Catholic Churches with Old catholic roots and theosophical tenets
•        The Liberal Catholic Church Overview of the entire Liberal Catholic
       movements, regardless of jurisdiction
•        The Liberal Catholic Church, Province of the USA The American branch of
       the more traditional church which emphasizes theosophical tenets
•        Liberal Catholic Church International The church in which theosophical
       tenets are allowed but not emphasized
•        The Liberal Catholic Church International Province of Great Britain and I
•        The Liberal Catholic Church in the British Isles
•        The Liberal Rite An independent Liberal Catholic community
•        The Reformed Liberal Catholic Church
•        The Young Rite Ritual in an esoteric Christian tradition

Religious Orders
•        Augustinians of the Immaculate Heart of Mary An Independent Catholic
       Religious Order
•        Franciscans of Divine Providence A canonical Religious Order to the
       Trinitarian Catholic Church
•        Grey Robed Monks of St. Benedict An Ecumenical Benedictine Community
•        Order of Port Royal Ecumenical Cistercian Congregation
•        The Order of Sevant Franciscans Ecumenical community of faith
•        Order of the Shepherd's Heart - EFCC Religious Order in Hollister
       Missouri, affiliated with the Ecumenical Free Catholic Communion
•        The Benedictine Order of Saint John the Beloved
•        The Society of Pope Saint Anacletus An Old Catholic Benedictine order
•        Companions of Saints Francis and Dominic Ecumenical fraternity of vowed
       men and women
•        Society of the Franciscan Servants of the Poor

Other links
•        Conference of North American Old Catholic Bishops
•        Table of the Old Catholic Apostolic Succession
•        Bonn Agreement
•        Old Roman Catholics - a term paper by Mariruth Graham
•        Declaration of Independence (1910) of the English Old Roman Catholic
       Church from the Utrecht Union, by Archbishop Arnold Harris Mathew
•        The Old Catholics, Rev. Anthony Cekada, 1980. In: The Roman Catholic
•        Disunion of Utrecht: Old Catholics Fall Out Over New Doctrines. An article
       by Laurence J. Orzell
•        Independent Movement Database - A free encyclopedia of information on
       the Independent Movement.
• The World of Autocephalous Churches Extensive
       information and links concerning Old Catholic and other Churches
       claiming valid Apostolic Succession which are separate from the more
       mainstream Roman Catholic, Orthodox, and Anglican Churches.
•        Anglican Relations with Old Catholics
•        Catholic Encyclopedia on the Old Catholics (Döllingerites)